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History of Croatia


Croatia is known worldwide by its coat of arms with white and red squares standing out and lined up side by side. Most often you see them during sports events where our top athletes participate. Thanks to them the world was introduced to the red and white Croatian coat of arms and that’s how the Croatian history was created. Dice by dice Croatia was made – becoming a well-known and popular tourist destination rich in natural, cultural and historical features Croatia is visited by more than 10 million tourists each year.



The time of Ancient people

It all started back in the Stone Age testified by objects made from stone found in a cave Šandalja near Pula and tools of the Neanderthals in a cave on a Hušnjak’s hill near Krapina. By the conclusion of the findings, people in the Neolithic were divided into four cultures. In the north it was Starčev’s culture where the production of Croatian pottery began significant for its red color. Slavonia was the habitat of the Sopot culture. Danilo’s culture stretched through the coast and Hvars through southern Croatian islands. Soon Vučedol’s culture developed in the metal age of Srem’s area and Slavonia. The most beautiful document which is the evidence of that culture is Vučedol’s dove, bird-shaped pot.

4th century BC was marked by the arrival of the Celts - the first nation who found themselves on the Croatian territory bringing with them, one might say, state trading to the area or the coinage skill. At that time, numerous ruins and stone forts were made and maritime skills began to develop. During this period the world was ruled by Greeks who formed their own colonies, starting from Korcula with settlement of Kokira Melajna. Then the colony of Issa on the island Vis, the colony Far in the Old City of island Hvar and Epetij in Stobreč,Tragurij inTrogir. In the vicinity of Lumbard on the island of Korcula the rule of Greeks at that time is testified by the inscription Lumbardian psefizam.


Soon, the Illyrian pirates were in conflict with the Romans, who had intended to dominate the Adriatic region and throughout the known world at that time. During the long reign of the Romans, cities were formed and various attractions of which are the world famous Diocletians Palace and Arena, the amphitheater.

From the seventh century

In the seventh century, the territorial space of todays Croatian was inhabited by people who Croats called their further ancestors. True origin of the nation is questionable, although it was interpreted as Slavic, Gothic, and the Iranian theory.

Young people are ruled by the Slavs and the first ruler to set was a person of Slavic origin. The ruler gave himself Croatian name Trpimir to reinforce his importance. Next one to rule was Tomislav from Trpimirovic lineage. He outfight and chased the Hungarians across the Drava river, and so became the first king of the Croats in which people are still proud of.


This was followed by a series of conquering new spaces and the most merit had a king Petar Kresimir IV and Zvonimir Dimitar. Petar Kresimir annexed Croatia Dalmatian cities, Slavonia, Principality of Neretva and parts of Bosnia.

During this period, Baška Tablet was created, a famous stone monument on which the first document in the Croatian language is inscribed where kings name and title was mentioned, and it was written in the Glagolitic script. Zvonimir was killed by the people because of a conflict of interest regarding the Crusades, and from this event, the legend is saying that Zvonimir, in his last moments of life, cursed the Croats, saying they will be nation without the ruler of their blood. And so it was. Nine centuries Croatia was ruled by other countries. The last king who had Croatian blood was Peter who died in 1097. at Gvozd.

Croatia was ruled by foreign rulers

For the Croatian territory on the coast powerful Venetian Republic was extremely interested in. 1300. Paul I. Subic received honorable title of "Emperor of Croats and master of Bosnia." Shortly before this declaration, the Vinodol’s code was created. It is the oldest code that is written in Croatian language. In this period there has been establishment of a number of cities, among which is Zagreb’s Gradec.


After the 16th century Ferdinand of Habsburg was elected for the Croatian king, a new personal union was created, this time with the Habsburg’s monarchy. Zrinski and Frankopan stood out in the battles against the Turks. Soon a strenuous process of Croatian settlement began, and the new inhabitants were Germans, Serbs, Czechs and Slovaks.


Far from the Turkish terror, independently a rich Dubrovnik Republic developed where the great personalities who have significantly marked the Croatian culture lived. Among them were Bartol Kašić, Leopold I, Ivan Gundulić and Ivan Lucic.

Like many countries, Croatia was affected by Napoleons wars. The disappearance of the Venetian Republic caused the territory of the eastern Adriatic coast appropriated by Austria, but soon the Croatian territory was won by France and was called Illyrian provinces.

After the great defeat of Napoleon in Russia, the whole of Croatia was ruled by Austria. Due to the implementation of a very strong Germanization and Magyarization over the Croatian people, the intellectuals stood by Ljudevit Gaj and started the Croatian national revival with which the Croatian language was promoted through a variety of articles and speeches, and in 1847. The Croatian Parliament declared that the Croatian language was official.

During that period, Count Josip Jelacic started the war with Hungary because of strong Magyarization. Due to the unrest, the Croats have begun to collaborate with the Serbs. Russia came to help. It was crucial rescue from which Hungary was defeated. The new ruler became Franjo Joseph I. His reign was characterized by strong absolutism that after the war moved to centralism within the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

Croats have therefore had to make a deal with the Hungarians and established the Croatian-Hungarian agreement which largely satisfied the interests of Hungary. Kingdom of Croatia remained territorially whole, and recognized as such, but it was subordinated to the Hungarian financial needs. The reigned of Croatia was divided between Hungary and Austria. Hungary had acted in Medjimurje and Rijeka, and Austria in Istria, Dalmatia and Boka Kotorska until the monarchy did not fall apart. During the reign of these two forces, Croatian intellectuals challenged the authorities with various movements. Among the major names Frano Supilo may be mentioned and Ante Trumbic who initiated the "New Frontier". That meant the gathering of all the opposition parties in Rijeka and Zadar, which created the Resolution of Rijeka under Croats and Zadar’s resolution by the discretion of Serbian politicians. From this cooperation occurs Croatian-Serbian coalition.


Soon, by the Sarajevo assassination the First World War broke out. The consequence of the war was disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which eleven years later changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Istria, Rijeka and Zadar were at that time under the rule of Italy, where distinct fascism has already been implemented.

After World War II, Croatia was soon found in socialist Yugoslavia, which was ruled by Tito. After Titos death in 1980, in Yugoslavia the Member States began to create disturbance and the accession to power of Slobodan Milosevics Socialist Yugoslavia disintegrated.


The Republic of Croatia

In Croatia in 1990. the first democratic elections were conducted which were won by the Croatian Democratic Union. For the first president of independent Croatian Franjo Tudjman was chosen in 1991. With that decision Serbs did not agree and their rebellion began a five-year Homeland War. Croatians managed to win the grandest operations "Flash" and "Storm" in 1995. Meanwhile, Croatia has become a recognized member of the United Nations from 2009 and NATO. Today is a candidate for EU membership. After Tudjman, President Stjepan Mesic has been selected, and today the president of Croatia is Ivo Josipović.

Today, Croatia is a parliamentary democracy, a modern, democratic republic, a tourist destination that offers many cultural-amusing, social and recreational facilities that is sure to have a big impact from its rich and turbulent history.


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